Use questioning as scaffolding to independent learning. Independent Learning Theory 17th November 2020 Independent study involves processing, methodology and philosophy of education whereby a learner acquires knowledge and develops the ability for enquiry and critical evaluation. �>O/2�Ju��bE.�f��v��e�d��,�jY*�$�j}mn��M1٦��! If independent learning is not a common feature of your class, then … Charles Wedemeyer (1981) rooted his Theory of Independent Study in the ideal of learner freedom. Independent learning Many students have trouble making the transition to the more independent learning required at university compared with their previous study. Independent learning (IL) is learning in which the learning goals, method or direction to achieve the learning goals, and regulation of learning process is decided, guided and managed by the learner. Discussions: If you want to expand an argument but are stuck for ideas, get a debate with friends or peers. Fluency is another important element supported through independent reading. Learning takes place through the student’s activity. These are aspects of the learning experience that students must control for themselves. Social learning theories help us to understand how people learn in social contexts (learn from each other) and informs us on how we, as teachers, construct active learning communities. 67 0 obj <> endobj This is number 7 in my blog series on major learning theories. In IL there is no external intervention on what, when and how to learn. 88 0 obj <>stream M… Providing materials for independent writing; Theory to practice ; Evidence base; Links to VEYLDF; Experience plans and videos ; Links to learning foci and teaching practices: References; This section covers additional theories and pedagogical strategies to develop children’s independent engagement with texts focussing on emergent readers and writers. 79 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8C27256813F1CD298F3AE06CD68684B9>]/Index[67 22]/Info 66 0 R/Length 71/Prev 158548/Root 68 0 R/Size 89/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Constructivists see the learner as a constructor of knowledge. Teaching is individualized. Constructivist Theory. Fluency continues to develop as a reader engages with texts of expanding vocabulary and sophisticated concep… 9, pp. �!�L��@����X���7�gt0 �+)� �|�Pn��}w8X�;��&�+@����"1@z��� ����w7/g7a9����8��� Learning … In this sense, self-directed learning is viewed simultaneously as a means and an end of lifelong education. h�bbd``b`� $��. The learning is defined, organised and completed by the learner. Kolb’s Experiential Theory. Banksy is of the opinion that “A lot of people never use their initiative because no-one told them to” (Banksy). Read actively: Be an active reader, pay close attention to the words you are reading and their meaning. Independent Learning Theory is related to the following terms: Independent learning is self-directed learning, where an individual can choose what they want to learn, how deeply they wish to learn about something and the methods/processes involved in learning. He states that these terms such as “self-planning learning, inquiry method, independent learning, self-education, self-instruction, self-teaching, self-study and autonomous learning” (p18) are strongly related to the learner acquiring knowledge in isolation. In the last post we examined the work of Mihály Csíkszentmihályi on Flow Theory. ?��G��B��ϪE}_TKrST��-���hZ}���V �y��oyg��$��O��d̓�I����z����lPۄ��$� l�5�AGn����o�h��y��@pq,l�2cE�����2�u���{;܋2�.1�i��F�|�#F����b�}V��ی:9���nxݰ��_�[�m��DL�4���G��$'�#�hZ���2T�a(�Qԇ?���K�2�v��ϐ����q�}{6"�:�#��K�䕵Ĺe�g�g�^�[rCK�n�g��qp#�xMGR���w�З��¤CC�}���s�zw���C�`G"�`�x��0�[0�w�P�{�W*z������}P. Summary: The Montessori Method is an approach to learning which emphasizes active learning, independence, cooperation, and learning in harmony with each child’s unique pace of development. You may well find that you share a problem with another student on your course or even in another discipline. h��UmO�0�+�q�P��;��e��H��ⵑҤJ��~>;�k�����;ߝ���I In the 1990s, constructivist books abounded. Discussion . This transition may be especially difficult for international students who may be used to more support and direction. Promoting Self Learning On Your Own Terms. Flexibility for different levels of intelligence. 3. Toward a Theory of Independent Learning and Teaching. Becoming an independent learner has many benefits, but the focus of this piece is upon the connection between independent learning and the improvement of student psychological well-being. The teacher must develop effective classroom discourse, asking higher order, open-ended questions, responding flexibly to students’ responses to promote thinking, problem-solving skills and deeper understanding. Set goals: Think what you want to get out of your work and remind yourself next time you’re flagging. Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. As is the case with many terms commonly used in higher education learning, such as ‘critical thinking’, ‘independent learning’ can mean different things to different … Effective time management: Break each project down into the relevant tasks, work out how long you will need to spend on each part, then allocate time in your diary in order of priority. However, academic staff cannot be responsible for the entire student experience. 661-679. Unlike Piaget's notion that childrens' development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (1978, p. 90). Be persistent: If a task is challenging, don’t give up. h�b```f``����@ (���7r�������uz�M��*�"�0 Keep at it until you understand what you need to do. Lev Vygotsky (1962), a Russian teacher and psychologist, first stated that we learn through our interactions and communications with others. According to the definition of lifelong education adopted by the UNESCO Institute of Education, it should possess the following characteristics: An important distinction regarding self-directed learning is whether it’s global or a process. Constructivism really got its start in the late 1980s. On the one hand, self-directed learning is one of the most common ways in which adults pursue learning throughout their life span as well as being a way in which people supplement learning received in formal settings. means that the child is reading the lesson in the text (or watching the video On the other hand, lifelong learning provides people with skills and competencies required to continue their own self-education beyond the end of of formal schooling. Choose your sources carefully. However having the skills and attitudes to take responsibility for one’s own learning is a critical key to student success in their tertiary education. 0 Go solo: Practice working individually for long periods of time. Theory. Constructivism is a learning theory that attempts to explain how learners learn by constructing understanding for everyone. However, Candy has a more enlightened view of this issue: The relationship between self-directed learning and lifelong education is a reciprocal one. 44, No. Not every student is going to work at the same pace. Social learning theory can have a number of real-world applications. Independent Learning is learning that is self-directed. Independent Learning is often linked with other approaches to learning such as personalisation, student -centred learning and ownership of l earning. Working with someone else, encouraging each other and talking through difficulties may … Academic staff are responsible for the intentional design of the curriculum and its quality-content, the ways in which it is delivered, and the ways in which student achievement of desired learning outcomes is assessed. ��$���XJ BH����.��� ��������p ���� �q�O� �a The normal processes of teaching and learning are carried out in writing or through some other medium. Independent Learning Theory is related to the following terms: Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions. This expectation exists at other levels of education, particularly as students progress to the final year of high school. Independent learning is a method or learning process where learners have ownership and control of their learning – they learn by their own actions and direct, regulate, and assess their own learning. When readers reread familiar texts or texts where the decoding requirement is minimalised, greater attention can be placed on building meaning (Konza, 2016). In other words, social learning tends to precede (i.e., come before) development. If you need help, ask for it! The best example of this approach is found in Tough’s list of 13 steps in beginning a self-directed learning project: It is interesting to note that although this list includes many practical issues regarding self-directed learning, Tough did not ignore motivation, necessary resources and time which are important for self-directed learning. Lead to the systematic acquisition, renewal, upgrading and completion of knowledge, skills, and attitudes made necessary by the constantly changing conditions in which people now live, Have promotion of the self-fulfillment of each individual, Acknowledge all available educational influences, including formal, non-formal, and informal, Be dependent for its successful implementation on people’s increasing ability and motivation to engage in self-directed learning activities, Deciding what knowledge and skill to learn, Deciding the specific activities, methods, resources, or equipment for learning, Setting specific deadlines or intermediate targets, Deciding the beginning of learning episode, Deciding the pace during a learning episode, Estimating the current level and progress of knowledge and skill, Detecting any factor that’s hindering learning, Obtaining the desired resources or equipment, Saving or obtain the money necessary for the use of certain human or nonhuman resources, Taking certain steps to increase the motivation for learning. Communication of learning goals between a student and the advising instructor … My plan is to work through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of their theories, and how each can be applied in education. The answer is “no” because it is clear that an individual can elect to complete only one self-directed learning course and not choose to continue with any form of education. Educators (experts) may act as facilitators or guides. Different sources: When doing research, try gathering from different sources. This section will explore the constructivist learning theory by defining constructivism, providing varying views of constructivism, and illustrating how constructivism relates to independent learning and higher education. Wedemeyer characterized independent study as one in which: The student and teacher are separated. The concept of ‘independent learning’ is associated with, or part of, a number of other educational concepts and wider policy agenda of contemporary relevance such as ‘personalisation’, ‘child- or student-centred learning’ and ‘ownership’ of learning. endstream endobj startxref The aim here is a gradual, step-by-step transfer of responsibility from the teacher to the student. As university level teachers, we have a professional responsibility creating optimal learning environments for our students, but students themselves must be committed to their own learning success. Another way to understand independent study is to understand learning from a distance. Skim read: Speed read or skim material before reading it in detail and then summarising the text in your notes. Independent learning is buzz term that has been around for several years within education but what is it all about? This section provides a brief introduction to each type of learning theory. %PDF-1.5 %���� But many people did not know how to label what they were doing. High psychological distress levels appear to start in the first year of university education. (1973). We cannot control how much individual efforts a student to devote to their own study, or how serious, motivated they are to learn and make the most of the learning opportunities available to them. This helps in thinking about an element you hadn’t considered before. An interesting question arises whether self-directed learning implies a lifelong education. However, there can often be something of a gap between our stated intentions and what we do on a day-to-day basis. High school enquiry and critical evaluation an end of lifelong education Wedemeyer characterized independent is. And ownership of l earning with another student on your course or even in another discipline working on your or! 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